Since October 2008, the Five IP Offices (IP5) have been engaged in ten collaborative projects known as the Foundation Projects. These projects were devised to harmonise the search and examination environment of each office and to standardise the information-sharing process. The projects are expected to facilitate the work-sharing initiative by enhancing the quality of patent searches and examinations and by building mutual trust in each other's work. The vehicle for work sharing will continue to be the PCT. The IP5 Offices believe that the PCT is a strong platform for work-sharing but that improvements in the PCT are necessary.